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Vanilla Orchid Care, The Vanilla Bean Plant

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Vanilla Orchid Care, The Vanilla Bean Plant Photo © Malcolm Manners
Has your four-year-old ever looked at you begrudgingly over a plate of veggies, and said, “I wish there was an ice cream plant.” Well, move over parsnips and eggplant, because with a little orchid-growing know-how, you can cultivate one of the most aromatic and intoxicating spices on earth for ice cream, coffee drinks, and desserts.

Latin Name:

Family Orchidaceae, Genus Vanilla planifolia

Description

Like many orchids, the vanilla bean orchid is an epiphyte, and lives on a host tree without drawing nutrients from it. The vine clambers up to the treetops in a zigzag fashion, exhibiting long succulent lance-shaped leaves. Each blooming branch will bear one to two dozen creamy blooms, for a total of several hundred flowers on a mature vine.

Native Country

Mexico

Size

In its native habitat, a mature vanilla orchid vine can grow to 300 feet or greater. However, you can keep your vine to a manageable 20 feet in greenhouse conditions. Training the vine laterally instead of straight up allows you to get more vine in a smaller space.

Growing Conditions

The vanilla orchid grows best in bright filtered shade and high humidity. Ideal temperatures are between 60-70 degrees F at night, and 80-95 degrees F during the day. The plants are not frost tolerant.

Bloom Period

3-5 years from cutting to bloom

Planting:

Start your vanilla orchid in a mixture of half bark and half potting mix. This is slightly more dense and heavy than most orchid growing media. Your cutting or small starter plant will need this combination of excellent drainage and nutrients to nourish the plant while the vine develops. After the vine develops its epiphytic roots, it will no longer depend on the roots in the potting mix.

Care:

Wherever you grow your vanilla orchid, you must provide this large vine with a sturdy support. In tropical climates, a large tree makes an ideal support. If you grow your vine in a conservatory or greenhouse, a solid wood trellis can support the plant. Don’t bother with fancy latticework; a simple lumber structure is stronger and will soon be obscured by the vine.

Fertilize your vanilla orchid every two weeks during the spring and summer with an orchid fertilizer. Mist your plant regularly and make every effort to keep an 80% humidity level.

Hand-pollinate the flowers in the morning with a chopstick. Remove pollen from the stamen of one flower and place it on the stigma of another flower. Pods will form within a week, and are ready to harvest in 9-10 months.

Harvest Instructions:

If pollination is successful, your three-year-old vanilla orchid will produce green bean-like pods from October through March. Good quality pods should be at least six inches long. The curing process is labor-intensive, and involves sweating and drying. Every day for six weeks, you must wrap the beans in a blanket at night to facilitate moisture condensation on the pods. During the day, place the beans on trays in the sun, or under a heat lamp indoors. Following this sweating process, you should dry the now brown and shriveled pods in a dark, dry place for an additional three months. You can store the cured beans in an air tight container indefinitely.
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